Nascent tech acquisitions have been the subject of renewed regulatory and antitrust scrutiny in recent years. These acquisitions can often be very small—hundreds of tech deals have occurred in the past decade below the current reporting threshold of $101 million—and the current merger review process of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) often fails to capture the harms unique to these early-stage deals. This Note argues that the FTC should...

Introduction In Apple Inc. v. Pepper, the Supreme Court held that consumers who allegedly paid too much for apps sold on Apple’s App Store because of an antitrust violation could sue Apple for damages because they were “di­rect purchasers.” The decision sidesteps most of the bizarre complexities that have resulted from the Supreme Court’s 1977 […]

Antitrust courts often confront “mixed” conduct that has two contrasting effects, one harmful and the other beneficial. For example, a nationwide agreement not to pay college football players harms the players while benefiting fans of amateur sports. An important tool for analyzing mixed conduct is to compare the action to a hypothesized alternative and to ask whether the alternative action is “less restrictive” and hence less harmful....

In antitrust law, the state action doctrine allows states to take regulatory actions that would otherwise result in violations of the federal antitrust laws. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court has not always provided clear guidance in its state action jurisprudence, and lower courts have expressed frustration with this doctrinally confusing area of antitrust law. There is confusion among the lower courts over the relationship between state...

Various forces are driving healthcare providers to pursue integration to reduce prices and improve efficiency. Right now, the dominant payment model for healthcare is fee-for-service, in which a patient is charged for each individual service, test, or visit. An alternative model is value-based care, in which the emphasis is on value as opposed to volume. But to provide value-based care, health systems generally must be integrated enough to connect...

The age of digital distribution exacerbates transaction costs in two distinct ways. First, the dissemination of large quantities of works requires permissions from myriad copyright holders. Second, new technologies lower the cost of content creation, resulting in millions of individual creators, rather than a discrete set of large industry repeat players. The potential of class actions to address this rising transaction cost problem has gone largely...

Although antitrust scrutiny of “big tech” companies has increased drastically over the past decade, much of the national debate has concerned issues of monopolization and the Sherman Act—the dominant federal antitrust statute. But with rapid developments in artificial intelligence and machine learning, algorithmic price fixing has become an increasingly pressing threat that the Sherman Act is ill-equipped to tackle. Under the current framework,...

COLUMBIA LAW REVIEW NOTES SELECTED FOR PUBLICATION Please join the Columbia Law Review in congratulating the following student authors on their Notes selected for publication in Volume 123 of the Review: Harish Sai Bhaskar, “Conway, In Pari Delicto and the Adverse Interest Exception—Borrowing From the English” Likhitha Butchireddygari, “Eliminating Wealthy Investors’ Tax Benefit From Police Brutality Bonds” Fatima Hasanain, “Laboring After […]

Class actions for monetary relief have long been the subject of in­tense legal and political debate. The stakes are now higher than ever. Contractual agreements requiring arbitration are proliferating, limit­ing the availability of class actions as a vehicle for collective redress. In Congress, legislative proposals related to class actions are mired in par­ti­san division. Democrats would roll back mandatory arbitration agree­ments while...

As U.S. competition authorities ponder whether age-old antitrust laws should be modernized to apply to tech giants, a first-order question is: What existing antitrust laws apply to their conduct? A formerly formida­ble tool that has been defanged through lax enforcement is the Robinson–Patman Act (RPA). Passed by Congress in 1936, the RPA was drafted in response to a growing public concern that large chain stores were squeezing out small businesses....