Law & Psychology


Maggie Wittlin*

Judges and juries are frequently called upon to evaluate a party’s actions in retrospect—with the benefit of hindsight. Traditionally, courts and scholars have been understandably wary about how hindsight bias influences verdicts, focusing on how to keep outcome information away from jurors and how to minimize its influence on adjudication. But outcome information can be probative evidence: Bad outcomes can be indicative of bad decisionmaking....