Empirical Research


Courtney G. Joslin* & Douglas NeJaime**

Approximately two-thirds of states have functional parent doctrines, which enable courts to extend parental rights based on the conduct of forming a parental relationship with a child. Different jurisdictions use different names—including de facto parentage, in loco parentis, psychological parenthood, or presumed parentage—and the doctrines arise from different sources of authority—common law, equitable, and statutory. While much has been...